What is Free Software?
is simply software that respects our freedom — our freedom to learn and
understand the software we are using. Free software is designed to free the
user from restrictions put in place by proprietary software, and so using
free software lets you join a global community of people who are making the
political and ethical assertion of our rights to learn and to share what
we learn with others.
Because most software we buy or download from the web denies us these rights,
we can look at the reasons why: usually we don't actually buy ownership of
the software but instead, receive a license to use the software, binding us
with many fine-print rules about what we can and can't do.
We should be able to make copies of software and give them to our friends, we
should be able to figure out how programs work and change them, we should be
able to put copies of software on all the computers in our home or office —
these are all things that software licenses are traditionally designed to prevent.
Enter the free software movement: groups of individuals in collaboration over
the Internet and in local groups, working together for the rights of computer
users worldwide, creating new software to replace the bad licenses on your
computer with community built software that removes the restrictions put in
place and creates new and exciting ways to use computers for social good.
Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 3.0 license (or later version)
Free Software is a matter of the freedom to run, copy, distribute, sell, study,
change, and improve, the software -- for all the software included in the system,
except for the proprietary device drivers and firmware included in the Linux
kernel known as "binary blobs". This is mainly beneficial for developers.
For users the benefits of this kind of technological freedom and social
cooperation are typically: better performance, security, reliability; faster
development so new features appear sooner and are usable sooner, and the access
to other users' contributions. In other words, users benefit indirectly, from
those who can improve the software. With software running everywhere in our
society today, controlling most of what we can read and do, unless users have
some fundamental freedoms over it, she/he has no knowledge or authority over
what is happening inside it. It does not even matter if you do not have the
knowledge or time to read and modify code: what matters is your freedom to do
so, including the ability to have someone do it for you.
The software is called by many names, but the most correct of these names is
"Free Software". It's important to understand that "Free Software" is mostly
the same as "Open Source" software, but because different words convey
different ideas it's also important to advocate in a clear way, which is to
simply use words that actually convey the idea of freedom. "Open Source"
conveys the software development methodology; "Free Software" conveys the
social movement and software freedom.
If you call it "Free Software," then people will find the people who call it
that; and if you call it "Open Source," then people will find those with a
different attitude about the importance of users having freedom -- as Free
Software places the importance on users' freedom, not the "freedom" of developers
to take it away. Similar to what Richard Stallman says: By using the term "Open
Source" you are essentially joining a group of people that emphasize (short term)
practicality over solutions that are lasting.
"Open Source" was a term that was invented to hide the meaning of Free Software
from companies, so they would be comfortable embracing it. Today, it is a term used
by companies to hide the mission of Free Software from users. The "Open Source"
movement itself is usually trying -- and for the most part, without even knowing it
-- to replace the idea of software freedom with the idea of "software freedom, only
when it's practical." By joining the "Open Source" movement, you are being
immediately co-opted, and inviting people to co-opt you even further in the future.
© LibreUniverse (menn) @ Identi.ca
Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
An operating system, abbreviated "OS", is software that provides
the user with an interface as well as hardware support and support
to run and use applications. Operating systems also accept input
and display output by communicating with hardware and interacting
with any respective applications or system software that might be
using that hardware. GNU
UNIX, BSD, Haiku, Windows (XP, Vista, 7) and Mac OS, are all examples
of operating systems. Linux, is a kernel. GNU using Linux as its
kernel makes a functioning
operating system called GNU/Linux,
more information below.
is the name given to any Unix-like computer operating system that
uses software from the GNU Project
and the Linux kernel
GNU/Linux is one of the most prominent examples of Free Software and Open
Source software collaboration. The GNU/Linux operating system consists of
the GNU Operating System, announced in 1983 by
except it substitutes GNU's kernel Hurd
with the Linux kernel, created in 1991 by
All underlying source code -- except for the proprietary device
drivers and firmware included in the Linux kernel -- can be freely
used, modified, and distributed by anyone, when licensed under the
GNU General Public License
Thousands of pieces of software for virtually every operating system are
licensed under the GNU General Public License.
Typically GNU/Linux is packaged in a format known as a "distribution"
for desktop and server use. GNU/Linux distributions include GNU (the main
supporting Userland in the form of essential system tools and libraries from
the GNU Project), the Linux kernel, and other supporting software required to run a
complete system, such as utilities and libraries, the X Window System, the
GNOME and KDE desktop environments, and the
Apache HTTP Server
Commonly-used applications with desktop GNU/Linux systems include the
Mozilla Firefox web-browser and the
office application suite.
Sometimes the GNU and Linux combination is incorrectly called simply
this is incorrect because Linux is the kernel, a singular program included
in the complete GNU/Linux operating system. Linux cannot run any software
without some kind of set of system tools and libraries.
There are operating systems that use GNU without Linux, such as
GNU/kFreeBSD (GNU using the
kernel), GNU/kOpenSolaris, GNU/Darwin, and GNU/Hurd (GNU using
with a micro-kernel such as
though GNU/Hurd should be called simply the GNU Operating System.) There
are also operating systems that use Linux without GNU, but mainly on
small embedded systems, such as cellphones, where software doesn't need to
execute complex, flexible, and demanding tasks, these systems typically
substitute GNU with some other operating system, often a proprietary one
such as Android.
OpenSolaris is a Free Software operating system based on Solaris created by Sun
Microsystems, now a part of Oracle Corporation. It is also the name of the
project initiated by Sun to build a developer and user community around it.
OpenSolaris is derived from the Unix System V Release 4 codebase, with
significant modifications made by Sun since it bought the rights to that code
in 1994. It is the only Free Software System V derivative available. Free
Software components are snapshots of the latest Solaris release under development.
Sun has announced that future versions of its commercial Solaris operating system
will be based on technology from the OpenSolaris project.
Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD)
Berkeley Software Distribution
, sometimes called Berkeley
) is the UNIX
derivative developed and distributed by the
Computer Systems Research Group
(CSRG) of the University of California, Berkeley
from 1977 to 1995.
Historically, BSD has been considered a branch of UNIX — "BSD UNIX",
because it shared the initial codebase and design with the original
UNIX operating system. In
the 1980s, BSD was widely adopted by vendors of
class systems in the form of proprietary UNIX variants such as
. This can be attributed to the
ease with which it could be licensed, and the familiarity it found among the
founders of many technology companies of this era.
Though these commercial BSD derivatives were largely superseded by the UNIX
System V Release 4
the 1990s (both of which incorporated BSD code), later BSD releases provided a
basis for several Free Software
development projects that continue to this day. Today, the term of "BSD" is often
non-specifically used to refer to any of these BSD descendants, e.g.
which together form a branch of the family of Unix-like
Haiku is a Free Software operating system compatible with BeOS. Its development
began in 2001, and the operating system became self-hosting in 2008, with
the first official alpha version
released in September 2009. Haiku
targets personal computing. Inspired by the Be Operating System, Haiku aims to
become a fast, efficient, simple to use, easy to learn and yet very powerful
system for computer users of all levels. Haiku is supported by Haiku, Inc., a
non-profit organization based in Rochester, New York, that was founded in
2003 to support the project.
Haiku is "alpha" software, this means that it's at its first stage
of development. Its codebase is consistently changing to add support for more
hardware, but its support for hardware in general is very limited. We do not
guarantee hardware compatibility with Haiku. This is why we do not recommend it,
unless you are an experienced Haiku user.
What is Proprietary Software?
The term proprietary software
is often used to mean
which is neither free
(as these terms
are variously defined, especially by FOSS
advocates such as the
Free Software Foundation
Open Source Initiative
). Terminology for forms of
is not fully standardized and can be controversial
A literal meaning of "proprietary" in relation to software is that it has a
owner who can exercise
control over what users can do with the software, in contrast to
However, the term is also commonly used to describe software with restrictions on use
or private modification, or with restrictions judged to be excessive on
of modified or unmodified versions. These restrictions are placed on it by one of its
In this sense it is also known as "non-free software" and is the opposite of
, generally speaking.
What is Source Code?
In computer science
(commonly just source
) is any
collection of statements or declarations written in some
computer programming language
is the mechanism most often used by programmers
to specify the actions to be performed by a computer.
A computer program's source code
is the collection of files needed to
convert from human-readable form to some kind of computer-executable form. The
source code may be converted into an executable
file by a compiler
, or executed
on the fly
from the human
readable form with the aid of an
The code base
of a programming
project is the larger collection of all the source code of all the
which make up the project.